Since the end of the Vietnam era, the US military based its medical model of care upon dramatic advances in the civilian emergency medical services (EMS) sector. This civilian system, while robust and capable of managing conventional prehospital trauma needs, failed when faced with rendering aid while under fire.
As a consequence of the 1993 Battle of Mogadishu, dramatized in the movie “Blackhawk Down”, the United States military redesigned its entire approach to tactical medicine and care under fire (CUF). A new paradigm in medical care was developed, termed Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC). This new approach to combat trauma, which emphasizes that medical care is simply another tactical decision to be evaluated in the context of the threatening situation, continues to save lives downrange. In contrast to standard ABCs, TCCC emphasizes casualty extraction and control of massive hemorrhage during conditions of active threat. Other medical interventions are deferred until an area of relative safety is reached.
On this page, I have provided some key articles on TCCC and outcomes (as well as some key trauma papers) that I have used as the basis for my law enforcement studies. I hope that you find these references useful. Please note that this is by no means a complete collection of articles.